例：This is particularly true for trees in the middle and upper latitudes, which tend to attain greater heights on ridges, whereas in the tropics the trees reach their greater heights in the valley. 这是一个由which引导的定语从句，先行词是前面的trees。
例：David Douglas, Scottish botanical explorer of the 1830s, found a disturbing change (in the animal life)(around the fort)(during the period)(between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832.)
在这句话中，括号里的都是介词短语，做修饰成分。in the animal life做定语修饰前面的名词change;around the fort做地点状语修饰谓语动词found，说明发现的地点;during the period和between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832做时间状语修饰谓语动词found，说明发现的地点。
This“atmospheric engine”, invented by Thomas Savery and vastly improved by his partner, Thomas Newcomen, embodied revolutionary principles, but it was so slow and wasteful of fuel that it could not be employed(outside the coal mines)(for which it had been designed.)
这句话中的过去分词invented by Thomas Savery and vastly improved by his partner做后置定语修饰前面的名词engine。
The growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teotihuacán and serve as additions to the labor force.